Oxycodone and Aspirin - Warnings Oxycodone Hydrochloride and Aspirin

The FDA requires all potential medication risks for OXYCODONE AND ASPIRIN (oxycodone hydrochloride and aspirin tablet) be disclosed to consumers, no matter how rare. Here are the warnings and precautions for Oxycodone and Aspirin.

Warnings & Precautions

addiction, abuse, & misuse

Oxycodone and aspirin tablets exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient's risk prior to prescribing oxycodone and aspirin tablets and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors and conditions (see WARNINGS).

opioid analgesic risk evaluation & mitigation strategy (rems)

To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a REMS for these products (see Warnings). Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to

  • complete a REMS-compliant education program,
  • counsel patients and/or their caregivers, with every prescription, on safe use, serious risks, storage, and disposal of these products,
  • emphasize to patients and their caregivers the importance of reading the Medication Guide every time it is provided by their pharmacist, and
  • consider other tools to improve patient, household, and community safety.

life-threatening respiratory depression

Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of oxycodone and aspirin tablets or following a dose increase (see WARNINGS).

accidental ingestion

Accidental ingestion of even one dose of oxycodone and aspirin tablets, especially by children, can result in a fatal overdose of oxycodone (see WARNINGS).

neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome

Prolonged use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available (see WARNINGS).

cytochrome p450 3a4 interaction

The concomitant use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets with all cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors may result in an increase in oxycodone plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression. In addition, discontinuation of a concomitantly used cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer may result in an increase in oxycodone plasma concentration. Monitor patients receiving oxycodone and aspirin tablets and any CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS; Drug Interactions).

warning: risks from concomitant use with benzodiazepines or other cns depressants

risks from concomitant use with benzodiazepines or other cns depressants

Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death (see WARNINGS)

  • Reserve concomitant prescribing of oxycodone and aspirin tablets and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
  • Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.
  • Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.

Warnings & Precautions

addiction, abuse, & misuse

Oxycodone and aspirin tablets contain Oxycodone, a Schedule II controlled substance. As an opioid, oxycodone and aspirin tablets exposes users to the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse (see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE).

Although the risk of addiction in any individual is unknown, it can occur in patients appropriately prescribed oxycodone and aspirin tablets. Addiction can occur at recommended dosages and if the drug is misused or abused.

Assess each patient's risk for opioid addiction, abuse, or misuse prior to prescribing oxycodone and aspirin tablets, and monitor all patients receiving oxycodone and aspirin tablets for the development of these behaviors and conditions. Risks are increased in patients with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol abuse or addiction) or mental illness (e.g., major depression). The potential for these risks should not, however, prevent the proper management of pain in any given patient. Patients at increased risk may be prescribed opioids such as oxycodone and aspirin tablets, but use in such patients necessitates intensive counseling about the risks and proper use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets along with intensive monitoring for signs of addiction, abuse, and misuse.

Opioids are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders and are subject to criminal diversion. Consider these risks when prescribing or dispensing oxycodone and aspirin tablets. Strategies to reduce these risks include prescribing the drug in the smallest appropriate quantity and advising the patient on the proper disposal of unused drug (see PRECAUTIONS; Information for Patients). Contact local state professional licensing board or state controlled substances authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.

opioid analgesic risk evaluation & mitigation strategy (rems)

To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for these products. Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to do all of the following:

  • Complete a REMS-compliant education program offered by an accredited provider of continuing education (CE) or another education program that includes all the elements of the FDA Education Blueprint for Health Care Providers Involved in the Management or Support of Patients with Pain.
  • Discuss the safe use, serious risks, and proper storage and disposal of opioid analgesics with patients and/or their caregivers every time these medicines are prescribed. The Patient Counseling Guide (PCG) can be obtained at this link: www.fda.gov/OpioidAnalgesicREMSPCG.
  • Emphasize to patients and their caregivers the importance of reading the Medication Guide that they will receive from their pharmacist every time an opioid analgesic is dispensed to them.
  • Consider using other tools to improve patient, household, and community safety, such as patient-prescriber agreements that reinforce patient-prescriber responsibilities.

To obtain further information on the opioid analgesic REMS and for a list of accredited REMS CME/CE, call 800-503-0784, or log on to www.opioidanalgesicrems.com. The FDA Blueprint can be found at www.fda.gov/OpioidAnalgesicREMSBlueprint.

life-threatening respiratory depression

Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression has been reported with the use of opioids, even when used as recommended. Respiratory depression, if not immediately recognized and treated, may lead to respiratory arrest and death. Management of respiratory depression may include close observation, supportive measures, and use of opioid antagonists, depending on the patient's clinical status (see OVERDOSAGE). Carbon dioxide (CO2) retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids.

While serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression can occur at any time during the use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets, the risk is greatest during the initiation of therapy or following a dosage increase. Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24-72 hours of initiating therapy with and following dosage increases of oxycodone and aspirin tablets.

To reduce the risk of respiratory depression, proper dosing and titration of oxycodone and aspirin tablets are essential (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Overestimating the oxycodone and aspirin tablets dosage when converting patients from another opioid product can result in a fatal overdose with the first dose.

Accidental ingestion of even one dose of oxycodone and aspirin tablets, especially by children can result in respiratory depression and death due to an overdose of oxycodone.

Opioids can cause sleep-related breathing disorders including central sleep apnea (CSA) and sleep-related hypoxemia. Opioid use increases the risk of CSA in a dose-dependent fashion. In patients who present with CSA, consider decreasing the opioid dosage using best practices for opioid taper (see Dosage and Administration).

neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome

Prolonged use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets during pregnancy can result in withdrawal in the neonate. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, unlike opioid withdrawal syndrome in adults, may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. Observe newborns for signs of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly.

Advise pregnant women using opioids for a prolonged period of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available (see PRECAUTIONS; Information for Patients, Pregnancy).

risks of concomitant use or discontinuation of cytochrome p450 3a4 inhibitors & inducers

Concomitant use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets with a CYP3A4 inhibitor, such as macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole), and protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir), may increase plasma concentrations of oxycodone and prolong opioid adverse reactions, which may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression (see WARNINGS), particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of oxycodone and aspirin tablets is achieved. Similarly, discontinuation of a CYP3A4 inducer, such as rifampin, carbamazepine, and phenytoin, in oxycodone and aspirin tablets-treated patients may increase oxycodone and aspirin tablets plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions. When using oxycodone and aspirin tablets with CYP3A4 inhibitors or discontinuing CYP3A4 inducers in oxycodone and aspirin tablets-treated patients, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider dosage reduction of oxycodone and aspirin tablets until stable drug effects are achieved (see PRECAUTIONS; Drug Interactions).

Concomitant use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets with CYP3A4 inducers or discontinuation of an CYP3A4 inhibitor could decrease oxycodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy or, possibly, lead to a withdrawal syndrome in a patient who had developed physical dependence to oxycodone. When using oxycodone and aspirin tablets with CYP3A4 inducers or discontinuing CYP3A4 inhibitors, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider increasing the opioid dosage if needed to maintain adequate analgesia or if symptoms of opioid withdrawal occur (see PRECAUTIONS; Drug Interactions).

risks from concomitant use with benzodiazepines or other cns depressants

Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result from the concomitant use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (e.g., non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol). Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.

Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioid analgesics alone. Because of similar pharmacological properties, it is reasonable to expect similar risk with the concomitant use of other CNS depressant drugs with opioid analgesics (see PRECAUTIONS; Drug Interactions).

If the decision is made to prescribe a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant concomitantly with an opioid analgesic, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use. In patients already receiving an opioid analgesic, prescribe a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant than indicated in the absence of an opioid, and titrate based on clinical response. If an opioid analgesic is initiated in a patient already taking a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant, prescribe a lower initial dose of the opioid analgesic, and titrate based on clinical response. Follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.

Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when oxycodone and aspirin tablets are used with benzodiazepine or other CNS depressants (including alcohol and illicit drugs). Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant have been determined. Screen patients for risk of substance use disorders, including opioid abuse and misuse, and warn them of the risk for overdose and death associated with the use of additional CNS depressants including alcohol and illicit drugs (see PRECAUTIONS; Drug Interactions).

life-threatening respiratory depression in patients with chronic pulmonary disease or in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients

The use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment is contraindicated.

patients with chronic pulmonary disease

oxycodone and aspirin tablets-treated patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, and those with a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression are at increased risk of decreased respiratory drive including apnea, even at recommended dosages of oxycodone and aspirin tablets (see WARNINGS).

elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients

Life-threatening respiratory depression is more likely to occur in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients because they may have altered pharmacokinetics or altered clearance compared to younger, healthier patients (see WARNINGS).

Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating and titrating oxycodone and aspirin tablets and when oxycodone and aspirin tablets are given concomitantly with other drugs that depress respiration (see WARNINGS). Alternatively, consider the use of non-opioid analgesics in these patients.

adrenal insufficiency

Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than 1 month of use. Presentation of adrenal insufficiency may include non-specific symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. If adrenal insufficiency is suspected, confirm the diagnosis with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, treat with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids. Wean the patient off of the opioid to allow adrenal function to recover and continue corticosteroid treatment until adrenal function recovers. Other opioids may be tried as some cases reported use of a different opioid without recurrence of adrenal insufficiency. The information available does not identify any particular opioids as being more likely to be associated with adrenal insufficiency.

severe hypotension

Oxycodone and aspirin tablets may cause severe hypotension including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g. phenothiazines or general anesthetics). Monitor these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating or titrating the dosage of oxycodone and aspirin tablets. In patients with circulatory shock, oxycodone and aspirin tablets may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure. Avoid the use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets in patients with circulatory shock.

risks of use in patients with increased intracranial pressure, brain tumors, head injury, or impaired consciousness

In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO2 retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), oxycodone and aspirin tablets may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with oxycodone and aspirin tablets.

Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.

risks of use in patients with gastrointestinal conditions

Oxycodone and aspirin tablets are contraindicated in patients with known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus.

The oxycodone in oxycodone and aspirin tablets may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis for worsening symptoms.

increased risk of seizures in patients with seizure disorders

The oxycodone in oxycodone and aspirin tablets may increase the frequency of seizures in patients with seizure disorders, and may increase the risk of seizures occurring in other clinical settings associated with seizures. Monitor patients with a history of seizure disorders for worsened seizure control during oxycodone and aspirin tablets therapy.

withdrawal

Do not abruptly discontinue oxycodone and aspirin tablets in a patient physically dependent on opioids. When discontinuing oxycodone and aspirin tablets in a physically dependent patient, gradually taper the dosage. Rapid tapering of oxycodone and aspirin tablets in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to a withdrawal syndrome and return of pain (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE ).

Additionally, avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist (i.e., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) or partial agonist (e.g., buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who are receiving a full opioid agonist analgesic, including oxycodone and aspirin tablets. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms [see PRECAUTIONS/Drug Interactions].

risks of driving & operating machinery

Oxycodone and aspirin tablets may impair the mental or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of oxycodone and aspirin tablets and know how they will react to the medication (See PRECAUTIONS: Information for patients).

hypersensitivity to oxycodone or aspirin, (e.g. angioedema)

oxycodone and aspirin tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to oxycodone or aspirin, and in any situation where opioids or aspirin are contraindicated.

reye syndrome

Aspirin should not be used in children or teenagers for viral infections, with or without fever, because of the risk of Reye syndrome with concomitant use of aspirin in certain viral illnesses

alcohol warning

Patients who consume three or more alcoholic drinks every day should be counseled about the bleeding risks involved with chronic, heavy alcohol use while taking aspirin.

coagulation abnormalities

Even low doses of aspirin can inhibit platelet function leading to an increase in bleeding time. This can adversely affect patients with inherited (hemophilia) or acquired (liver disease or vitamin K deficiency) bleeding disorders.

peptic ulcer disease

Patients with a history of active peptic ulcer disease should avoid using aspirin, which can cause gastric mucosal irritation and bleeding.

Precautions

general

Aspirin has been associated with elevated hepatic enzymes, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, hyperkalemia, proteinuria, and prolonged bleeding time.

hemorrhage

Aspirin may increase the likelihood of hemorrhage due to its effect on the gastric mucosa and platelet function (prolongation of bleeding time). Salicylates should be used with caution in the presence of peptic ulcer or coagulation abnormalities.

ambulatory surgery & postoperative use

Oxycodone and other morphine-like opioids have been shown to decrease bowel motility. Ileus is a common postoperative complication, especially after intra-abdominal surgery with use of opioid analgesia. Caution should be taken to monitor for decreased bowel motility in postoperative patients receiving opioids. Standard supportive therapy should be implemented.

information for patients / caregivers

Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).

storage & disposal

Because of the risks associated with accidental ingestion, misuse, and abuse, advise patients to store oxycodone and aspirin tablets securely, out of sight and reach of children, and in a location not accessible by others, including visitors to the home (see WARNINGS, DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE ). Inform patients that leaving oxycodone and aspirin tablets unsecured can pose a deadly risk to others in the home.

Advise patients and caregivers that when medicines are no longer needed, they should be disposed of promptly. Expired, unwanted, or unused oxycodone and aspirin tablets should be disposed of by flushing the unused medication down the toilet if a drug take-back option is not readily available. Inform patients that they can visit www.fda.gov/drugdisposal for a complete list of medicines recommended for disposal by flushing, as well as additional information on disposal of unused medicines.

addiction, abuse, & misuse

Inform patients that the use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets, even when taken as recommended, can result in addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death (see WARNINGS). Instruct patients not to share oxycodone and aspirin tablets with others and to take steps to protect oxycodone and aspirin tablets from theft or misuse.

life-threatening respiratory depression

Inform patients of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression, including information that the risk is greatest when starting oxycodone and aspirin tablets or when the dosage is increased, and that it can occur even at recommended dosages (see WARNINGS). Advise patients how to recognize respiratory depression and to seek medical attention if breathing difficulties develop.

accidental ingestion

Inform patients that accidental ingestion, especially by children, may result in respiratory depression or death (see WARNINGS).

interactions with benzodiazepines & other cns depressants

Inform patients and caregivers that potentially fatal additive effects may occur if oxycodone and aspirin tablets are used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, and not to use these concomitantly unless supervised by a health care provider (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS; Drug Interactions).

serotonin syndrome

Inform patients that oxycodone and aspirin tablets could cause a rare but potentially life-threatening condition resulting from concomitant administration of serotonergic drugs. Warn patients of the symptoms of serotonin syndrome and to seek medical attention right away if symptoms develop. Instruct patients to inform their physicians if they are taking, or plan to take serotonergic medications.

maoi interaction

Inform patients to avoid taking oxycodone and aspirin tablets while using any drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase. Patients should not start MAOIs while taking oxycodone and aspirin tablets (see PRECAUTIONS; Drug Interactions ).

adrenal insufficiency

Inform patients that oxycodone and aspirin tablets could cause adrenal insufficiency, a potentially life threatening condition. Adrenal insufficiency may present with non-specific symptoms and signs such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. Advise patients to seek medical attention if they experience a constellation of these symptoms (see WARNINGS).

important administration instructions

Instruct patients how to properly take oxycodone and aspirin tablets. The usual dosage is one tablet every 6 hours as needed for pain. The maximum daily dose of aspirin should not exceed 4 grams (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, and PRECAUTIONS)

important discontinuation instructions

In order to avoid developing withdrawal symptoms, instruct patients not to discontinue oxycodone and aspirin tablets without first discussing a tapering plan with the prescriber (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).

hypotension

Inform patients that oxycodone and aspirin tablets may cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Instruct patients how to recognize symptoms of low blood pressure and how to reduce the risk of serious consequences should hypotension occur (e.g., sit or lie down, carefully rise from a sitting or lying position).

anaphylaxis

Inform patients that anaphylaxis have been reported with ingredients contained in oxycodone and aspirin tablets. Advise patients how to recognize such a reaction and when to seek medical attention (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS).

pregnancy

neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome

Inform female patients of reproductive potential that prolonged use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS; Pregnancy)

embryo-fetal toxicity

Inform female patients of reproductive potential that oxycodone and aspirin tablets can cause fetal harm and to inform the healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy (see PRECAUTIONS; Pregnancy).

lactation

Advise nursing mothers to monitor infants for increased sleepiness (more than usual), breathing difficulties, or limpness. Instruct nursing mothers to seek immediate medical care if they notice these signs.

infertility

Inform patients that chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

driving or operating heavy machinery

Inform patients that oxycodone and aspirin tablets may impair the ability to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. Advise patients not to perform such tasks until they know how they will react to the medication (see WARNINGS).

constipation

Advise patients of the potential for severe constipation, including management instructions and when to seek medical attention.

disposal of unused oxycodone & aspirin tablets

Advise patients to dispose of unused oxycodone and aspirin tablets by flushing the tablets down the toilet or disposing of in accordance with local guidelines and/or regulations.

laboratory tests

Although oxycodone may cross-react with some drug urine tests, no available studies were found which determined the duration of detectability of oxycodone in urine drug screens. However, based on pharmacokinetic data, the approximate duration of detectability for a single dose of oxycodone is roughly estimated to be one to two days following drug exposure.

Urine testing for opiates may be performed to determine illicit drug use and for medical reasons such as evaluation of patients with altered states of consciousness or monitoring efficacy of drug rehabilitation efforts. The preliminary identification of opiates in urine involves the use of an immunoassay screening and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) may be utilized as a third-stage identification step in the medical investigational sequence for opiate testing after immunoassay and TLC. The identities of 6-keto opiates (e.g., oxycodone) can further be differentiated by the analysis of their methoxime-trimethylsilyl (MO-TMS) derivative.

Table 1: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with oxycodone and aspirin tablets
Inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets and CYP3A4 inhibitors can increase the plasma concentration of oxycodone, resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects. These effects could be more pronounced with concomitant use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets and CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors, particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of oxycodone and aspirin tablets is achieved (see WARNINGS).
After stopping a CYP3A4 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, the oxycodone plasma concentration will decrease (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY), resulting in decreased opioid efficacy or a withdrawal syndrome in patients who had developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
Intervention: If concomitant use is necessary, consider dosage reduction of oxycodone and aspirin tablets until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals.
If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, consider increasing the oxycodone and aspirin tablets dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal.
Examples Macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g. ketoconazole), protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir)
CYP3A4 Inducers
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets and CYP3A4 inducers can decrease the plasma concentration of oxycodone (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY), resulting in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence to oxycodone (see WARNINGS).
After stopping a CYP3A4 inducer, as the effects of the inducer decline, the oxycodone plasma concentration will increase (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY), which could increase or prolong both the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions, and may cause serious respiratory depression.
Intervention: If concomitant use is necessary, consider increasing the oxycodone and aspirin tablets dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. If a CYP3A4 inducer is discontinued, consider oxycodone and aspirin tablets dosage reduction and monitor for signs of respiratory depression.
Examples: Rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin
Benzodiazepines and other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants
Clinical Impact: Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants including alcohol, increases the risk of respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death.
Intervention: Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation (see WARNINGS).
Examples: Benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol.
Serotonergic Drugs
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
Intervention: If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue oxycodone and aspirin tablets if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Examples: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that effect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), certain muscle relaxants (i.e. cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone) monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
Clinical Impact: MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma) (see WARNINGS).
Intervention: The use of oxycodone and aspirin tablets is not recommended for patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment.
If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.
Examples phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid
Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics
Clinical Impact: May reduce the analgesic effect of oxycodone and aspirin tablets and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms
Intervention: Avoid concomitant use.
Examples: butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphine,
Muscle Relaxants
Clinical Impact: Oxycodone may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression.
Intervention: Monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of oxycodone and aspirin tablets and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary.
Diuretics
Clinical Impact: Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.
Intervention: Monitor patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed.
Anticholinergic Drugs
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
Intervention: Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when oxycodone and aspirin tablets are used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.
Analgesics
Clinical Impact: Analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect of oxycodone or may precipitate withdrawal symptoms
Intervention: Should be administered with caution to a patient who has received or is receiving a full opioid agonist such as oxycodone.
Examples: pentazocine, nalbuphine, naltrexone, and butorphanol

drug / drug interactions with aspirin

angiotensin converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors

The hyponatremic and hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by the concomitant administration of aspirin due to its indirect effect on the renin-angiotensin conversion pathway.

acetazolamide

Concurrent use of aspirin and acetazolamide can lead to high serum concentrations of acetazolamide (and toxicity) due to competition at the renal tubule for secretion.

anticoagulant therapy (heparin & warfarin)

Patients on anticoagulation therapy are at increased risk for bleeding because of drug-drug interactions and the effect on platelets. Aspirin can displace warfarin from protein binding sites, leading to prolongation of both the prothrombin time and the bleeding time. Aspirin can increase the anticoagulant activity of heparin, increasing bleeding risk.

anticonvulsants

Salicylate can displace protein-bound phenytoin and valproic acid, leading to a decrease in the total concentration of phenytoin and an increase in serum valproic acid levels.

beta blockers

The hypotensive effects of beta blockers may be diminished by the concomitant administration of aspirin due to inhibition of renal prostaglandins, leading to decreased renal blood flow, and salt and fluid retention.

diuretics

The effectiveness of diuretics in patients with underlying renal or cardiovascular disease may be diminished by the concomitant administration of aspirin due to inhibition of renal prostaglandins, leading to decreased renal blood flow and salt and fluid retention.

methotrexate

Aspirin may enhance the serious side and toxicity of methotrexate due to displacement from its plasma protein binding sites and/or reduced renal clearance.

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaid's)

The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAID's should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. Aspirin may enhance the serious side effects and toxicity of ketorolac, due to displacement from its plasma protein binding sites and/or reduced renal clearance.

oral hypoglycemics agents

Aspirin may increase the serum glucose-lowering action of insulin and sulfonylureas leading to hypoglycemia.

uricosuric agents

Salicylates antagonize the uricosuric action of probenecid or sulfinpyrazone.

drug / laboratory test interactions

Depending on the sensitivity/specificity and the test methodology, the individual components of oxycodone and aspirin tablets may cross-react with assays used in the preliminary detection of cocaine (primary urinary metabolite, benzoylecgonine) or marijuana (cannabinoids) in human urine. A more specific alternate chemical method must be used in order to obtain a confirmed analytical result. The preferred confirmatory method is gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Moreover, clinical considerations and professional judgment should be applied to any drug-of-abuse test result, particularly when preliminary positive results are used.

Salicylates may increase the protein bound iodine (PBI) result by competing for the protein binding sites on pre-albumin and possibly thyroid-binding globulins.

carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility

carcinogenesis

Long-term studies in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of oxycodone and aspirin have not been conducted.

mutagenesis

The combination of oxycodone and aspirin has not been evaluated for mutagenicity. Oxycodone alone was negative in a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames), an in vitro chromosome aberration assay with human lymphocytes without metabolic activation and an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. Oxycodone was clastogenic in the human lymphocyte chromosomal assay in the presence of metabolic activation and in the mouse lymphoma assay with or without metabolic activation. Aspirin induced chromosome aberrations in cultured human fibroblasts.

impairment of fertility

Animal studies to evaluate the effects of oxycodone on fertility have not been conducted. Aspirin has been shown to inhibit ovulation in rats.

pregnancy

risk summary

Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy may cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (see WARNINGS). Available data with oxycodone and aspirin tablets are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. Reproduction studies in rats and rabbits demonstrated that oral administration of oxycodone was not teratogenic or embryo-fetal toxic. In several published studies, treatment of pregnant rats with oxycodone at clinically relevant doses and below, resulted in neurobehavioral effects in offspring (see Data ). Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.

The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinical recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 14-20%, respectively.

clinical considerations

fetal / neonatal adverse reactions

Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth.

Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, and manage accordingly (see WARNINGS).

labor or delivery

Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and pyscho-physiologic effects in neonates. An opioid antagonist, such as naloxone must be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. oxycodone and aspirin tablets are not recommended for use in women during and immediately prior to labor, when use of shorter acting analgesics or other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Occasionally, opioid analgesics, including oxycodone and aspirin tablets, can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilatation, which tends to shorten labor. Monitor neonates exposed to opioid analgesics during labor for signs of excess sedation and respiratory depression.

Salicylates readily cross the placenta and by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis, may cause constriction of ductus arteriosus resulting in pulmonary hypertension and increased fetal mortality and, possibly other untoward fetal effects. Aspirin use in pregnancy can also result in alteration in maternal and neonatal hemostasis mechanisms. Maternal aspirin use during later stages of pregnancy may cause low birth weight, increased incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants, stillbirths and neonatal death. Use during pregnancy, especially in the third trimester, should be avoided.

data

animal data

Reproduction studies in rats and rabbits demonstrated that oral administration of oxycodone was not teratogenic or embryo-fetal toxic. In published studies, offspring of pregnant rats administered oxycodone during gestation have been reported to exhibit neurobehavioral effects including altered stress responses, increased anxiety-like behavior (2 mg/kg/day IV from Gestation Day 8 to 21 and Postnatal Day 1, 3, and 5; 0.3-times an adult human dose of 60 mg/day, on a mg/m2 basis) and altered learning and memory (15 mg/kg/day orally from breeding through parturition; 2.4 times an adult human dose of 60 mg/day, on a mg/m2 basis).

lactation

risk summary

Oxycodone is present in breast milk. Published lactation studies report variable concentrations of oxycodone in breast milk with administration of immediate-release oxycodone to nursing mothers in the early postpartum period. The lactation studies did not assess breastfed infants for potential adverse reactions. Lactation studies have not been conducted with extended-release oxycodone, including oxycodone and aspirin tablets, and no information is available on the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including excess sedation and respiratory depression in a breastfed infant, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with oxycodone and aspirin tablets.

Salicylic acid has been detected in breast milk. Adverse effects on platelet function in the nursing infant exposed to aspirin in breast milk may be a potential risk. Furthermore, the risk of Reye Syndrome cause by salicylate in breast milk is unknown. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for oxycodone and aspirin tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from oxycodone and aspirin tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.

clinical considerations

Monitor infants exposed to oxycodone and aspirin tablets through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped or when breastfeeding is stopped.

females & males of reproductive potential

infertility

Chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility in females and males of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible.

pediatric use

oxycodone and aspirin tablets should not be administered to pediatric patients. Reye Syndrome is a rare but serious disease which can follow flu or chicken pox in children and teenagers. While the cause of Reye Syndrome is unknown, some reports claim aspirin (or salicylates) may increase the risk of developing this disease.

geriatric use

Elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) may have increased sensitivity to oxycodone. In general, use caution when selecting a dosage for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids, and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co- administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of oxycodone and aspirin tablets slowly in geriatric patients and monitor closely for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

hepatic impairment

In a pharmacokinetic study of oxycodone in patients with end-stage liver disease, oxycodone plasma clearance decreased and the elimination half-life increased. Care should be exercised when oxycodone is used in patients with hepatic impairment.

Avoid aspirin in patients with severe hepatic impairment.

renal impairment

In a study of patients with end stage renal impairment, mean elimination half-life of oxycodone was prolonged in uremic patients due to increased volume of distribution and reduced clearance. Oxycodone should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment.

Avoid aspirin in patients with severe renal impairment (glomerular filtration rate less than 10 mL/minute).

This drug label information is as submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is intended for informational purposes only. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Search Drugs and Medication

Or Browse by Name